*Correspondence: Julio Gregorio Mora-Ruano, email@example.com, Front. Given that the proposed structure resulted in an ill-fitting model, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to further investigate the adequate number of constructs and structure of this measure. J. Educ. Graham, 2007), and improvement of instructional quality (cf. doi: 10.1080/19404476.2007.11462044. editorial. Three variables, level of teacher collaboration, level of administrative support and time collaborating, were created from the teachers’ responses to the items by obtaining the mean of the responses on a 5-point Likert. Dokumentation der Erhebungsinstrumente. 40, 161–181. Am. “Ein Konzept von Kooperation und die technische Unterstützung kooperativer Prozesse in Bürobereichen,” in Computergestützte Gruppenarbeit (CSCW) [Computer-aided group work], eds J. Friedrich, and K.-H. Rödiger (Stuttgart: B.G. Lee and Smith, 1996; Louis et al., 2010; Dumay et al., 2013). Teacher Collaboration: Scaffolding Learning and Teaching This article by Jon Nordmeyer, originally published in the EARCOS Tri-Annual Journal, Winter 2015, is one of two articles that will close out the Collaboration for ELs series. The effect of an instructional intervention on middle school English learners' science and English reading achievement. Nine items were eliminated because they did not contribute to a simple factor structure and failed to meet a minimum criteria of having a primary factor loading of 0.4 or above, and no cross-loading of 0.2 or above as suggested by Nunnally and Bernstein (1994). School J. After an inspection of the regression weights, the error terms of the items six and eight were correlated because they had an unusually big value in comparison to the other items, contributing to a misspecification of the model. (2013). Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, Volume 36, Issue 4 (2020) President's Message. Positive effects for teachers were found in improved self-efficacy (cf. Psychol. DuFour et al. doi: 10.1080/00098655.1982.10113746. Dufour, R., Dufour, R., and Eaker, R. (2006). In Finland, for example, the curriculum reform of 2016 stated that a “collaborative atmosphere” (Halinen, 2015) is a key aim for school improvement, given that by working together across school subjects the objectives of the new curriculum, such as teacher competence development, can be met. Louis, K. S., Dretzke, B., and Wahlstrom, K. (2010). Field, A. Increasing their effectiveness and resource knowledge is a straightforward way teachers can increase their students’ chances for academic success. doi: 10.1207/s15328007sem1103_2, Meirink, J. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health, identifies interprofessional collaboration among health care providers as an essential part of improving the accessibility, quality, and value of health care in the United States. Our review of the literature has identified concrete aspects that can be positively influenced through teacher collaboration. doi: 10.5159/IQB_PISA_2012_v2, Puchner, L. D., and Taylor, A. R. (2006). Jon Nordmeyer is the international program director at WIDA, a nonprofit research center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where his research focuses on teacher collaboration and global learning networks. Qualitätskontrolle und qualitätssicherung in schule und unterricht. Educ. Retrieved from: http://web.pdx.edu/~newsomj/semclass/ (accessed February 21, 2019). Sälzer, C., and Prenzel, M. (2013). Educ. J-HH provided expertise on data analysis and performed some of these analyses (i.e., data matching). “Causal modeling via structural equation systems,” in Handbook of Multivariate Experimental Psychology. Datensatz. ... communication and collaboration, and self-direction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Portlant, OR: Department of Psychology, Portland State University. Our results show that a positive effect on student achievement can be established only when teachers specifically collaborate to discuss or advise each other about student performance. Uses models and modeling of effective practice 5. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. Teaming up: linking collaboration networks, collective efficacy, and student achievement. Hargreaves, A. Motivationale Bedingungen von Lehrerkooperation. Additionally, some studies have found a positive effect of teacher collaboration on student achievement (cf. Unterrichtswissenschaft 45, 262–279. Parent–teacher communication is essential if a collaborative relationship is to be established. In the present study, using data from the representative PISA 2012 German sample, we investigate the effects that the three forms of teacher collaboration proposed by PISA namely instruction- project- and organization related have on student achievement. doi: 10.1007/BF02291170, Vandenberg, R. J. Teaching Young Children Discover practical tips and innovative ideas for preschool teachers in our award-winning magazine. Ditton (2000) places teacher collaboration (at the instruction level) as a factor in a model for school quality. doi: 10.1002/9781118619179. [The suggestion of teachers for cooperation - a task for Sisyphos?]. Darling-Hammond et al. Educ., 13 August 2019 doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411, Bentler, P. M. (1988). “Lehrer [Teacher],” in Pädagogische Psychologie, eds E. Wild and J. Möller (Berlin; Heidelberg: Springer-Lehrbuch. Hattie, J. Goddard et al., 2010; Lara-Alecio et al., 2012). Effective Teacher Professional Development In the article Team Teaching: The Learning Side of the Teaching – Learning Equation, Eison and Tidwell (2003) advocate sharing power with students and including them in some of the decision-making about their own learning. Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. Paris: OECD. The diagonals of the anti-image correlation matrix were also all over 0.5. Tucker, L. R., and Lewis, C. (1973). The other two forms IRC and PRC yielded no direction whatsoever and a negative direction, respectively. Two major limitations of our study warrant attention. 54, 14–17. (1990). No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Teubner), 79–94. Therefore, the correlation of these error terms is supported by what we consider a substantive rationale and not only because of statistical reasons or for purposes of achieving a better fitting model. (2017) take a similar stance, as they have shown that student achievement can be positively influenced when “effective collaborative structures for teachers to problem-solve and learn together are utilized” (p. 10). Rec. As a special education teacher, you are responsible for every student on your caseload. |, https://learningforward.org/docs/default-source/pdf/nsdcstudy2009.pdf, https://www.oph.fi/english/current_issues/101/0/what_is_going_on_in_finland_curriculum_reform_2016, http://research.acer.edu.au/research_conference_2003/4/, https://afse2015.sciencesconf.org/58706/document, https://www.kmk.org/fileadmin/veroeffentlichungen_beschluesse/2004/2004_12_16-Standards-Lehrerbildung-Bildungswissenschaften.pdf, http://www.kmk.org/fileadmin/veroeffentlichungen_beschluesse/2003/2003_01_01-Bildungsbericht-erste-Befunde.pdf, https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/gradschool_disstheses/5581, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Darling-Hammond, L., Wei, R., Adree, A., Richardson, N., and Orphanos, S. (2009). Each model is distinct, yet they share common features. (1997). It consists of a measurement model that defines the latent constructs and a structural model that defines the relationships among the latent variables (Bollen, 1989). Anderson and Gerbing (1988) suggested that before examining the structural relationships in a model, a first step in form of a confirmatory factor analysis is preferred because it ensures that the latent constructs are adequately measured. A study of teacher collaboration in a dependent school-within-school: How do teachers perceive their collaborative process and its effect on instruction? . Res. Teacher Collaboration. Although from our analysis, the effects of the three forms of collaboration on student achievement were non-significant, the direction of the relationships were as expected. The future is also our past: How we ensure all teachers are prepared for teaching in the classroom of tomorrow. [Profession and Cooperation.  Howe, R. J. Puchner and Taylor, 2006), increased teaching effectiveness (cf. doi: 10.1086/444122. Provides coaching and expert support 6. Thus, by analyzing the representative German sample from PISA 2012, we expand the existing literature by investigating the effects that three forms of collaboration [instruction-related (IRC), project-related (PRC) and organization, performance, and problems-related (ORC)] have on student achievement as measured by grades from the subjects of mathematics, German language, biology, physics and chemistry. Stud. Because research on teacher collaboration and its effects on student achievement is still in an emerging phase, further examination is essential to understand its connections and to expand related findings (ibid). What Works Best in Education: The Politics of Collaborative Expertise. Contributions to the discussion about school quality. Graham, 2007), and improvement of i… Teach. Bollen, 1989; Byrne, 2016). The article presents results of a study on teachers’ views, beliefs, and experience on school-based informal collaboration for professional improvement. doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.1.2.130. 20, 313–328. DuFour et al. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik 41, 73–92. doi: 10.1787/9789264103733-en, OECD (2014). Reeves et al. Kunter, M., and Pohlmann, B. Student achievement is measured through the retrieved students' grades in the first half year of the academic period 2011/2012 in the subjects of mathematics, German language, biology, physics, and chemistry. 22, 922–934. On Common Ground: The Power of Professional Learning Communities. This form is measured with questions referring to the frequency with which teachers exchange teaching materials, exam questions and work together for the preparation of individual and follow-up lessons. [Professional Understanding and School Development: A Match?]. Fan, X., Thompson, B., and Wang, L. (1999). Factor loadings for the complete model can be seen in Table 3. However, because of its relatively recent emergence, empirical evidence of the effects of teacher collaboration on student achievement is limited (Moolenaar et al., 2012). Teaching in the Knowledge Society: Education in the Age of Insecurity. In turn, effective professional development (PD) is needed to help teachers learn and refine the pedagogies required to teach these skills. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2011.10.001, Mora-Ruano, J. G., Gebhardt, M., and Wittmann, E. (2018). This sample is drawn from two steps: first, schools are randomly selected, and then within each selected school, classes, students or teachers are randomly selected (Sälzer and Prenzel, 2013). Permission to access and use the data for scientific purposes was granted through the German Research Data Center (FDZ) at the Institute for Educational Quality Improvement (IQB). Teacher-Parent Collaboration A child's education can be greatly enhanced by their parents' involvement in the classroom and at home. Positive effects for teachers were found in improved self-efficacy (cf. Res. (2006) a lack of time and a lack of leadership support are among the factors that can cause a Professional Learning Communities (PLC) to fall apart. An index of factor simplicity. The communities that will be formed by working collaboratively will enhance teacher effectiveness and expertise (Hattie, 2015). Retrieved from: https://learningforward.org/docs/default-source/pdf/nsdcstudy2009.pdf (accessed April 6, 2019). Hidalgo-Cabrillana, A., and Lopez-Mayan, C. (2015). For a detailed explanation of the design used in PISA 2012, see (ibid). We report the chi-square and its significance value as it is the original fit index and the basis for most other fit indices. A theoretical and empirical investigation of teacher collaboration for school improvement and student achievement in public elementary schools. J. Res. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, United States. Available online at: http://www.kmk.org/fileadmin/veroeffentlichungen_beschluesse/2003/2003_01_01-Bildungsbericht-erste-Befunde.pdf (accessed June 6, 2015). 49, 987–1011. 107, 256–259. Collaboration among teachers is a force that positively influences the whole school community. Retrieved from: http://research.acer.edu.au/research_conference_2003/4/. (2010) argue that the majority of the existing literature investigates the effects on teachers and not on students. (1989): Structural Equations with Latent Variables. 103, 411–423. Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Los Angeles, CA; London; New Delhi: Sage. Given the huge impact that teachers play in the performance of their students and the continual acknowledgment of teacher collaboration as a core element for the professional development of the school and its members, it is not surprising that many official policies and education reforms around the world plead for more collaborative practices among teachers. New York, NY: Routledge. Educ. Final measurement model with standardized values and regression weights. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a range of four years (e.g. Gaikwad, S., and Brantly, P. (1992). ein überblick zum stand der empirischen forschung. Model. This definition lays the foundations for later expanded definitions such as occupational and organizational psychology (Piepenburg, 1991; Spieß, 2004), political education (Reinhardt, 2000), or pedagogic-oriented (Esslinger, 2002). Collaboration among teachers is a force that positively influences the whole school community. Bosker, R. J., and Hendriks, M. A. This is carried out through simultaneous analyses such as confirmatory factor analysis, linear regression and path estimates (cf. Paris: OECD Publishing. Elem. Supports collaboration, typically in job-embedded contexts 4. Svendsen, B. (2018). Die Deutsche Schule 108, 82–94. doi: 10.1177/1094428105285506. 21, 315–336 doi: 10.1080/09243453.2010.486586. Borko, H. (2004). Kullmann, H. (2013). Struct. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. “Science teachers' satisfaction: evidence from the PISA 2015 teacher survey,” in OECD Education Working Papers, 168 (Paris: OECD Publishing). Completing the Foundation for Lifelong Learning: An OECD Survey of Upper Secondary Schools. Equ. “Connecting principal leadership, teacher collaboration, and student achievement,” in Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting (Denver, CO). doi: 10.1080/0305764X.2010.481256, Moolenaar, N. M., Sleegers, P. J., and Daly, A. J. Subsequently, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted in order to test the factorial validity of the re-specified instrument, resulting in a better model than the original. Professional Capital: Transforming Teaching in Every School. Within the field of education, collaboration comes in many guises: teacher collaboration in the classroom (peer teaching/team teaching), collaborative learning among learners themselves, collaborative research, and collaborative curriculum development, to name some of the most common. Educ. Enschede: Universiteit Twente, Onderzoek Centrum Toegepaste Onderwijskunde. collaboration was by far the dominant factor in retaining these teacher leaders for 10 (p<.05) or 15 (p<.01) years. Rev. Schacter, J., and Thum, Y. M. (2004). (2000). This goal is made easier through special education collaboration. Educ. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree. (2006). (2006). doi: 10.3102/0013189X08331140. Schacter and Thum, 2004; Hidalgo-Cabrillana and Lopez-Mayan, 2015). Lee and Smith, 1996; Borko, 2004; Louis et al., 2010; Dumay et al., 2013). Structural equation modeling allows to test statistically if there are “causal processes that generate observations on multiple variables [and] to hypothesize and specify in detail the process of interrelated effects operating among variables” (Bentler, 1988, p. 317). Teacher collaboration has been a common element of middle grades initiatives for years, typically one or more of these three organizational models: common planning time, professional learning communities, and critical friends groups. Münster: Waxmann. (1996) are used. Educational reform and the ecology of schooling. The results of a study conducted by Ronfeldt et al. (2015). This includes the responsibility to implement accommodations for students as well as the responsibility to ensure the achievement of the students' goals. Gebhardt, M., Schwab, S., Krammer, M., and Gegenfurtner, A. (2010). Hargreaves, A., and Fullan, M. (2012). 93, 610–627. Econ. IQB – Institut zur Qualitätsentwicklung im Bildungswesen. In a series of interviews with master teachers, a reporter finds that certain intangible qualities matter more than the best tactics. A Beginner's Guide to Structural Equation Modeling. Search across a wide variety of disciplines and sources: articles, theses, books, abstracts and court opinions. Following this recommendation, we selected the following fit indices: the standardized root mean square (SRMR), the Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI; Tucker and Lewis, 1973), the root mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA; Steiger and Lind, 1980), and the comparative fit index (CFI; Bentler, 1990). B. Table 1 shows a comparison of the model fit results between the original hypothesized model and the two re-specifications which were conducted because the initial model proved to be ill-fitting. J. Educ. Clearing House 56, 1–106. This Article is brought to you for free and open access by CORE Scholar. Res. For the German context which this paper addresses, Drossel (2015) states that findings concerning teacher collaboration in Germany are “inconsistent and partially contradictory” (p. 55), although in Germany, collaboration is considered a fundamental part of school development (Kultusministerkonferenz, 2003; Kulturministerkonferenz, 2014), and a key aspect of models of professional learning which attempt to close the achievement gap. Taking as a starting point these different approaches to the definition, Mora-Ruano et al. Research has also found a positive and significant association between teacher collaboration and job satisfaction (cf. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-88573-3_11, Lara-Alecio, R., Tong, F., Irby, B. J., Guerrero, C., Huerta, M., and Fan, Y. The datasets generated for this study will not be made publicly available permission to access and use the data for scientific purposes must be granted through the German Research Data Center (FDZ) at the Institute for Educational Quality Improvement (IQB). Byrne, B. M. (2016). Schoolteacher: A Sociological Study. Our analysis of the teacher interviews explicitly uncovered these connections between collaboration, improved effectiveness in the classroom, and retention of those newly more effective teachers in high-needs schools. teacher collaboration and have set up ways of a llowing teachers to work together. Darling-Hammond, L., Hyler, M. E., and Gardner, M. (2017). Overall fit in covariance structure models: two types of sample size effects. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Principal leadership long-term indirect effects on learning growth in mathematics. It would be advisable to rethink the theory that supports the model as well as the instrument itself. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). 109, 877–896. Esslinger, I. Methods 9, 194–201. New York, NY: Guilford Press. (2003). There are a number of challenges in using group-based tasks to assess collaboration. 11, 320–341. In PISA 2012 frequency of teacher collaboration is measured through question 21 in the in the National Questionnaire for Teachers (by Bosker and Hendriks, 1997, see Table Appendix A) and investigated through three different forms of collaboration from the IPN: instruction-, project- and organization, performance, and problems related.
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